In my work, I combine the study of the formal properties of the meaning of words and morphemes with the study of what humans do when using these expressions n everyday life — that is, the practices whereby we exchange information, build common ground and negotiate social relationships. I have been pursuing this goal by focusing on the a variety of phenomena, including: intensifiers; imprecisionsubjective predicates; discourse particlesalternative questions. I have additional interests in language processing, and in semantic change

BRIDGING FORMAL AND SOCIAL APPROACHES TO MEANING — Words have two types of meaning: a semantic meaning, which allows us to describe facts about the world; and a social meaning, which conveys information about us – e.g., our age, our gender, our orientation towards other speakers and social groups. In my work I explore the relationship between these two types of meaning, focusing on how they interact to determine the content communicated by linguistic expressions. I have focused on two phenomena in particular: intensifiers like totally, and Italian -issimo; and imprecise speech.

  • My dissertation, “Bridging the Gap: Intensifiers between Semantic and Social Meaning”. PDF
  • Pragmatic precision and speaker qualities. Exploring social meaning across domains. In revision for Linguistics Vanguard. Paper
  • Totally between discourse and subjectivity. Exploring the pragmatic side of intensification.  Journal of Semantics. Paper
  • Totally young sounds totally younger: intensification at the socio-semantics interface. Journal of Sociolinguistics. (with Laura Staum Casasanto). Paper
  • Intensification, gradability and social perception. Accepted in “The semantics of gradability, vagueness, and scale structure: Experimental perspectives”, Springer series, edited by Castroviejo, McNally and Sassoon. Paper.
  • 2016. Exploring metalinguistic intensification. The case of Extreme Degree Modifiers. Proceedings of NELS 46. Paper.
  • 2015. Intensification without degrees cross-linguistically. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 33(3). 843-879 (with Ryan Bochnak). Link to pre-final draft.

My dissertation, “Bridging the Gap: Intensifiers between Semantic and Social Meaning

SUBJECTIVE MEANING AND ILLOCUTION – Linguists and philosophers have long debated on the semantic representations underlying subjective predicates — e.g.,  “Rollercoasters are fun”, “The soup is tasty” — versus factual, objective ones — e.g., “Paris is in France”, “The movie started at 8 am”. In this, I rely on online experiments to investigate how these two kinds of assertions differentially shape the procedure whereby we update the Common Ground of a conversation

  • Subjective assertions are weak: an Experimental Study on Perspective-Dependent meaning. Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 22. Paper
  • The Illocutionary Force of Subjective Predicates: an Experimental Study. Poster presented at WCCFL 35.

DISCOURSE PARTICLES: BETWEEN LOGIC AND PRAGMATICS —  Discourse particles  modulate the relationship of the speaker to the world and the conversation. Interestingly, each of these expressions tends to have (seemingly very) different functions, raising the following question: can the flexible behavior of such particles be linked to an underlying logical core? I pursue this question by focusing on two case studies.

In joint work with Emily Hanink, I investigate like’s polysemy between a hedging use, as in “The shoes were like $20.”, and a mirative use, as in “Never thought it would happen, but Bob is like…rich now!”. We argue that both contributions can be traced back to like’s core semantics as an operator widening a pragmatically restricted set.

  • In press. Marking imprecision, expressing surprise. Like between hedging and mirativity. (with Emily Hanink).  Journal of Linguistics. Paper.
  • “Like”, hedging and mirativity. A unified account.  Colloque de Syntaxe and Semantique a Paris (CSSP). Handout.

In a separate line’ of work, I explore just’s polysemy between a weakening exclusive (e.g., “the food is just ok”) and an emphatic marker (e.g., “the food is just amazing”). I propose an account of the latter as exclusive operators over metalinguistic alternatives, positing a shared semantic kernel between these two functions.

  • Emphatic just: exploring metalinguistic exclusives. Semantics and Linguistic Theory 28 (SALT). Paper.

ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS AND INTERACTION — While encoding similar logical content, the following questions are pragmatically different.

(1) Is the puppy male?   (2) Is the puppy male or not?     (3) Is the puppy male or female?   

Combining controlled acceptability studies and formal analysis,  I seek to explore the mapping between the morpho-syntactic elements that differentiate these questions and the way in which such questions constrain discourse. We are especially interested in modeling the pragmatic differences between these questions in terms of the general principles that govern the interpretation of meaning across constructions (e.g., division of pragmatic labor, focus, information structure.)


  • Decomposing cornering effects in alternative questions: An Experimental Investigation (with Erlinde Meertens and Maribel Romero). Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 22.  Paper.
  • Alternative Questions, Markedness and Illocutionary Properties: an Experimental Study (with Erlinde Meertens and Maribel Romero). Proceedings of the 53rd Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Paper.

LANGUAGE PROCESSING – I am also interested in the relationship between grammar and cognition, and in particular in how certain syntactic and semantic structures can help us comprehend the meaning of sentences. In one project I focus on resumptive pronouns such as “This is the that the cop arrested HIM” are a good test case. On the one hand, they are ungrammatical in English and many other languages. On the other hand, speakers consistently use them in speech. I have carried out an experimental study to better understand how these expressions help us interpret the meaning of complex sentences.

  • 2016. Unacceptable but comprehensible: the facilitation effects of resumptive pronouns.Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 1(1), 29. Glossa (with Ming Xiang) Paper

In another project I focus on the relationship between the conventional meaning of words and how we interpret them in communication, with an emphasis on the computation of scalar implicatures. I have carried out an experimental study to better understand how we interpret the meaning of these adjectives.

  • 2013. Is excellent better than good? Adjective scales and scalar implicatures.  Sinn und Bedeutung 17 (with Ming Xiang). Paper.

SEMANTIC CHANGE – Meanings, while seemingly fixed, are constantly changing. I am particularly interested in understanding how the structural and formal properties of words’ content at a given stage can help us make sense of the shifts that these words undergo in time. I have explored this issue by looking at different expressions.

  • 2015. From Totally Dark to Totally Old. The Formal Semantics of Subjectification. Sinn und Bedeutung 19 Paper
  • 2015. Great pizzas, ghost negations: The emergence and persistence of mixed expressives. Sinn und Bedeutung 19 (with Jackson Lee). Paper
  • 2014. Scalar meaning in diachrony: The suffix -issimo from Latin to Italian. NELS 44. Paper.

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